How to Grade? - Grey Zone Cases

Over the past five years, we were confronted with a couple of clinical cases, in which the grading of complications turned out to be difficult. Such cases were prospectively collected at our center.



Example of "grey zone cases"




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Scenario 5:
A 92-year-old patient presented with severe acute cholecystitis. Although the patient also suffered from severe cardiovascular disease and was considered as ASA IV, a laparoscopic cholecystectomy was performed. During surgery, the patient died of cardiac arrest.


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