J. Cameron, USA

R. Chari, USA

  • K. Kang, Korea

C. Bassi, Italy
J. Barkun
, Canada

M. Makuuchi, Japan

M. Monden, Japan

R. Padbury, Australia

J. Pekolj, Argentina

E. de Santibañes, Argentina

R.D. Schulik, USA

St. Strasberg, USA

J.N. Vauthey, USA


University Hospital Zurich

Prof. P.-A. Clavien, MD, PhD

Department of Surgery
CH-8091 Zurich, Switzerland
Tel.: +41 44 255 33 00

What is a surgical complication?
We define a complication as ‘‘any deviation from the ideal postoperative course that is not inherent in the procedure and does not comprise a failure to cure.’’ Read more...

Classifying surgical complications

The therapy used to correct a specific complication is the basis of the Clavien-Dindo classification in order to rank

a complication in an objective and reproducible manner.




Quality assurance in surgery
Surgical outcomes vary by provider and there remains considerable debate about which parameters should be

used to reflect surgical quality.


Original Article


June 2004
Classification of surgical complications -

A new proposal

Dindo D et al.

Ann Surg, 205-213




Related articles


December 2006
Assessment of complications after pancreatic surgery

DeOliveira, J. Cameron, Clavien P.A. et al.

Ann Surg, 931-937


July 2006

Systematic grading of surgical complications in live liver donors according to Clavien's system

S. Tamura, M. Makuuchi et al.

Transplant International 19; 982-987


May 2008

Robotic-assisted versus lapaorscopic Cholecystectomy: outcome and cost analysis

of a case matched control study.

Breitenstein S., Nocito A., Clavien P.A. et al

Ann Surg, 987-993


August 2008

Liver transplantation: the last measure in the treatment of bile duct injuries

de Santibanias E. et al.

World J Surg, 1714-1721




Citations are regulary updated here.